RESEARCH conducted by the Jagiellonian University






Module I

INITIAL STAGES OF WORK WITH A GROUP during the meetings, workshops, trainings, task sessions. Basics of facilitator’s work, principles, techniques, basic skills.



What is Facilitation
a) Where is facilitation applicable, what can it be used for? In what situations?
b) Three-level facilitation model: David Casey, Paul Roberts, Graeme
c) Three modes of a facilitator’s work.
d) What are the differences between a facilitator, a coach, a trainer,
a moderator, a consultant; roles and skills.
Commencing work with a group
a) Building the atmosphere of involvement and openness at the initial
stage – best practices and exercises.
b) The role of questions opening the discussion – “FAT questions”.
c) Constructing opening questions.
d) Providing structure to the group’s work – value of the first moments of work with a
a) What is a contract.
b) Three-level contract.
c) Value and role of the contract while working with a group.
d) How the construction of the contract depends on the size of the group, familiarity degree and purpose.
e) The contract in practice – exercise.
How to build involvement in participants- active methods of working
with a group
a) “Warm-ups”: emotional intellectual, for the purpose and direction,
creativity; key role of the warm-ups, e.g. focusing people on the purpose
of the workshop, revealing disputable issues within the group, revealing taboo
Facilitating the elements of the programme
a) Individual exercises of the participants.


Modes of the facilitators work according to John Heron:
a) Characteristics of the action in the following modes: hierarchic, cooperative,
Facilitation skills assessment questionnaire according to David Tinker
a) Analysing the results.
Emotions in a group
a) Impact of emotions on the group’s effectiveness.
b) Recognising emotions in a group and managing emotions.
c) Second life of the group – a problem?
d) Difficult relations in a group and coping with them.
e) Four principal mechanisms: projection, transfer, parallel
process, interpretation.
f) Using S. Karpman’s drama triangle to interpret
situations in a group.
g) Techniques for the Facilitator’s work with emotions – theory and practice.


Group process
a) Theoretical basis of the group process.
b) Building the awareness of diagnosing the group’s needs on various
stages of the process.
Group development stages according to Bruce Tuckman and John Heron
a) Distinguishing between the stages.
b) The Facilitator’s role and behaviour in each of the stages.
Ethics of the facilitators work
a) Organisational culture which the facilitator work with vs the facilitator’s ethical
b) Ethics in contracting.

Module II

CENTRAL STAGE OF WORKING WITH A GROUP– stage of storm and work with resistance
(difficult participants, confronting, transactional analysis used to solve conflicts).



Techniques for activating the group, depending on the process and the groups needs
a) Continuum.
b) Group settings.
c) Scaling.
d) “Wise gods”.
e) SWOT.
f) Metaphors.
g) Living sculptures.
Storm and resistance within a group
a) Symptoms of resistance in a group and techniques/methods of dealing with
various symptoms of resistance.
b) How to deal with: silence and withdrawal, direct aggression,
cynicism, crying, passive aggression in a group.
Group problem solving
a) Group “supervision”
Facilitating elements of the programme
a) Individual exercises of the participants


Basics of the systems theory impact of the systems theory on the group
a) Various models of working with a group: Edgar H. Schein , A. Robert Bales,
Kurt Levin, C. Wilfred Bion and Penny Topkins & her method called
“Clean language” (+ David Grove).
Solving problems in a group
a) Theories: model “ 3 worlds” J.J. Sherer; transactional analysis.
b) Method of supervision for difficult situations – “little words”,
individual facilitation.
c) Confrontation of the group and individuals, what is confrontation and
what it’s not, methodology of using confrontation
d) Modelling role of the facilitator in solving difficult situations.
e) Confronting group and individuals on the basis of Marshal B Rosenberg.
Facilitating the elements of the programme
a) Individual exercises of the participants.

Module III




Ending – how to wind up group sessions/ group process
a) Risk and threats of this stage on the part of the facilitator and the group.
b) Key elements of endings: summaries, appreciation.
c) Winding up the topics, preparing a “bridge” for further
work in different conditions (not in the group).
d) The role of the facilitator and his/her own attitude to ending the work
as a model for group reactions.
e) Recognising emotions that accompany endings and appropriate
reactions to them – techniques.
f) The role of time in endings
Facilitating elements of the programme
a) Individual exercises of the participants.


Facilitating large groups or complex processes
a) Specific planning of the programme before working with a large group: communicating the
 purpose, managing time in a large group, managing the energy of a large group
, “mathematics” of a large group.
b) Work with policy in complex processes affecting large
areas in an organisation.
c) Revealing and summarising as particularly significant techniques
in the facilitator’s work.
d) Techniques for working with a large group: STRIPES, Interrelationship Diagram, World cafe, Open Space, De bono hats, Disney Strategy, Mind
Mapping, Sociodrama, Apprehensions and hopes.
e) Creative and artistic options – techniques for working with a group.
The role of supervision
a) Understanding the value of supervision in maintaining healthy, ethical,
balanced facilitating practice.
Important elements of the ending
a) Celebration and appreciation.
Facilitating the elements of the programme
a) Individual exercises of the participants.